The Influence of Laying Hen Rearing Systems and Maintenance Technologies on Egg Quality Parameters: A Review


  • Andreea-Ionela Zinca Faculty of Animal Productions Engineering and Management, University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Bucharest, 011464, 59 Mărăști Blvd, District 1, Bucharest, Romania
  • Veronica-Denisa Lungu Faculty of Animal Productions Engineering and Management, University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Bucharest, 011464, 59 Mărăști Blvd, District 1, Bucharest, Romania
  • Andra Elena Moise Faculty of Animal Productions Engineering and Management, University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Bucharest, 011464, 59 Mărăști Blvd, District 1, Bucharest, Romania
  • Dumitru Drăgotoiu Faculty of Animal Productions Engineering and Management, University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Bucharest, 011464, 59 Mărăști Blvd, District 1, Bucharest, Romania


egg quality, hen welfare, laying hens, physical characteristics, production system


This review article highlighted the effects of different rearing systems on egg quality parameters and the welfare of laying hens. Different housing systems for laying hens continue to cause controversy among consumers, researchers, environmentalists, and producers. The main concern and issue is the effect of these systems on bird health, behavior, and egg quality. In the European Union, public concern has increased about animal welfare in the poultry sector, since 2012 conventional battery cages (CC) for laying hens have been banned and replaced by other alternative housing systems: enriched cages (EC) and non-cages systems, such as aviaries (AV), and free-range system. The rearing systems and maintenance technologies of the laying hens can also influence the quality parameters of the egg. Conventional rearing systems can involve overcrowding of hens, poor hygiene conditions, or lack of access to space and natural light, which can lead to stress and disease in the birds and, by implication, reduced egg quality. The use of modern technologies in the breeding of laying hens can contribute to the improvement of egg quality parameters and the well-being of laying hens. These technologies include automated systems for feeding and watering, temperature and humidity control in rearing houses, artificial lighting, and the use of food supplements to ensure adequate nutrient intake.


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Technologies Applied in Animal Husbandry