A short overview of Clostridium perfringens: Relevancy, Toxinotypes, Clinical Impacts, and the Challenges of Biofilm Formation


  • Mara-Georgiana Haralambie University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, 400372 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
  • Alina Țărnă University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, 400372 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
  • Aurelia Coroian University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, 400372 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
  • Ana-Maria-Cristina Imbrea University of Life Sciences King Mihai I from Timisoara, 300645 Timisoara, Romania
  • Igori Balta University of Life Sciences King Mihai I from Timisoara, 300645 Timisoara, Romania
  • Lavinia Ștef University of Life Sciences King Mihai I from Timisoara, 300645 Timisoara, Romania
  • Nicolae Corcionivoschi Bacteriology Branch, Veterinary Sciences Division, Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Belfast BT4 3SD, UK


Clostridium perfringens, infection and pathogenesis, toxinotypes, clinical manifestations, biofilm formation


C.perfringens, a ubiquitous bacterium, is implicated in a series of recent outbreaks across Europe, reflecting its significance in public health. The organism manifests different clinical presentations in both human and animal hosts. In the realm of veterinary science, its pathogenesis in species such as poultry, cattle, swine, and equines is of particular concern due to the economic implications stemming from morbidity and mortality rates. The enterotoxins produced by this bacterium is the primary cause of symptoms like watery diarrhea, abdominal pains, and cramps in humans, and leads to conditions such as clostridial myonecrosis and necrotic enteritis in animals. An important aspect of its virulence strategy is its ability to form biofilms. These sophisticated microbial assemblages confer an augmented resistance against environmental challenges and antimicrobial interventions. This review consolidates information about C. perfringens outbreaks in Europe, mode of infection, pathogenesis in various animals, associated clinical symptoms, and the nuances of its biofilm formation. The present literature synthesis could provide valuable insights for forthcoming preventive and therapeutic initiatives.


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