Nutritional Profile and Health Properties of Turmeric and Curcumin Extract: a Comparative Analysis


  • Iulia Varzaru Feed and Food Quality Department, National Research and Development Institute for Biology and Animal Nutrition, Calea Bucuresti, No.1, 077015 Balotesti, Romania
  • Arabela Untea Feed and Food Quality Department, National Research and Development Institute for Biology and Animal Nutrition, Calea Bucuresti, No.1, 077015 Balotesti, Romania
  • Mihaela Saracila Feed and Food Quality Department, National Research and Development Institute for Biology and Animal Nutrition, Calea Bucuresti, No.1, 077015 Balotesti, Romania
  • Alexandra Oancea Feed and Food Quality Department, National Research and Development Institute for Biology and Animal Nutrition, Calea Bucuresti, No.1, 077015 Balotesti, Romania
  • Alexandru Vlaicu Feed and Food Quality Department, National Research and Development Institute for Biology and Animal Nutrition, Calea Bucuresti, No.1, 077015 Balotesti, Romania


Antioxidant potential, bioactive compounds, nutritional quality, white grape pomace


Turmeric has been used as a traditional medicine in Southeast Asian countries and can serve as a spice, food preservative, and coloring agent. Turmeric owes its unique properties and color to curcuminoids, biologically active substances that encompass curcumin, de-methoxycurcumin, and bis-demethoxycurcumin. The purpose of the study was to investigate the nutritional properties of turmeric and curcumin extract, as potential dietary supplements for poultry nutrition. Turmeric was characterized by a content of 7.89 % crude protein, 4.61 % crude fiber, 1.76 % crude fat, and 7.47 % ash. The proximate composition of curcumin extract showed lower values when compared to turmeric. The chromatographic analysis of vitamin E isomers revealed α-tocopherol of 1.97 mg/kg in turmeric vs 8.09 mg/kg in curcumin, γ-tocopherol of 3.01 mg/kg in turmeric vs 10.4 mg/kg in curcumin, and δ-tocopherol of 13.84 mg/kg, while in curcumin was not detected. The antioxidant yellow pigments lutein and zeaxanthin were in higher amounts in curcumin extract, which was also characterized by an increased concentration of total polyphenols (76.50 mg/g GAE). Turmeric had higher levels of flavonoids (47.42 mg/g vs 24.71 mg/g). The outcomes of this study can serve as a foundation for developing innovative food products by using poultry nutrition and harnessing the potential benefits of this ancient spice.


Zillich, O. V., Schweiggert‐Weisz, U., Eisner, P., & Kerscher, M., Polyphenols as active ingredients for cosmetic products. International journal of cosmetic science, 2015, 37(5), 455-464.

Akter, J., Hossain, M. A., Takara, K., Islam, M. Z., & Hou, D. X., Antioxidant activity of different species and varieties of turmeric (Curcuma spp): Isolation of active compounds. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology, 2019, 215, 9-17.

Lucas, J., Ralaivao, M., Estevinho, B. N., & Rocha, F., A new approach for the microencapsulation of curcumin by a spray drying method, in order to value food products, Powder Technology, 2020, 362, 428-435.

Soleimani, V., Sahebkar, A., & Hosseinzadeh, H. Turmeric (Curcuma longa) and its major constituent (curcumin) as nontoxic and safe substances. Phytotherapy Research, 2018, 32(6), 985-995.

Ray, A., Mohanty, S., Jena, S., Sahoo, A., Acharya, L., Panda, P. C., ... & Nayak, S., Drying methods affect physicochemical characteristics, essential oil yield and volatile composition of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.). Journal of Applied Research on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 2022, 26, 100357.

Zhang, H. A., & Kitts, D. D., Turmeric and its bioactive constituents trigger cell signaling mechanisms that protect against diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Molecular and cellular biochemistry, 2021, 476(10), 3785-3814.

de Oliveira Filho, J. G., de Almeida, M. J., Sousa, T. L., dos Santos, D. C., & Egea, M. B., Bioactive compounds of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.). Bioactive compounds in underutilized vegetables and legumes, 2021, 297-318.

Sun, W., Wang, S., Zhao, W., Wu, C., Guo, S., Gao, H., ... & Chen, X., Chemical constituents and biological research on plants in the genus Curcuma. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition, 2017, 57(7), 1451-1523.

Liu, M., Lu, Y., Gao, P., Xie, X., Li, D., Yu, D., & Yu, M., Effect of curcumin on laying performance, egg quality, endocrine hormones, and immune activity in heat- stressed hens. Poultry Science, 2020, 99, 2196–2202.

Rafiee Z, Nejatian M, Daeihamed M and Jafari SM, Application of curcumin-loaded nanocarriers for food, drug and cosmetic purposes. Trends Food Sci Technol, 2019, 88:445–458.

Platel, K., & Srinivasan, K., Influence of dietary spices and their active principles on pancreatic digestive enzymes in albino rats. Food/Nahrung, 2000, 44, 42– 46.

Van Phuoc, T., Xuan Dung, N. N., Huu Manh, L., & Vinh Tu, N. N., Effect of dietary Turmeric (Curcuma longa) extract powder on productive performance and egg quality of black- bone chicken (Ac chicken). Livestock Research for Rural Development, 2019, 31, Article 23.

Emadi, M., & Kermanshahi, H., Effect of turmeric rhizome powder on the activity of some blood enzymes in broiler chickens. International Journal of Poultry Science, 2007, 6, 48–51.

Zacaria, A. M., & Ampode, K. M. B., Turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn.) as phytogenic dietary supplements for the production performance and egg quality traits of laying Japanese quail. Journal of Animal Health and Production, 2021, 9, 285–295.

Untea, A. E.; Varzaru, I.; Panaite, T. D.; Gavris, T.; Lupu, A.; Ropota, M. The effects of dietary inclusion of bilberry and walnut leaves in laying hens’ diets on the antioxidant properties of eggs. Animals 2020, 10(2), 191.

Ikpeama, A., Onwuka, G. I., & Nwankwo, C., Nutritional composition of Tumeric (Curcuma longa) and its antimicrobial properties. International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research, 2014, 5(10), 1085-1089.

Li, X., Chen, W., Chang, Q., Zhang, Y., Zheng, B., & Zeng, H., Structural and physicochemical properties of ginger (Rhizoma curcumae longae) starch and resistant starch: A comparative study. International journal of biological macromolecules, 2020, 144, 67-75.

Erdoğan, Ü., & Erbaş, S., Phytochemical profile and antioxidant activities of Zingiber officinale (ginger) and Curcuma longa L.(turmeric) rhizomes. Bilge International Journal of Science and Technology Research, 2021, 5(Özel Sayı), 1-6.

Paul, B. K., Munshi, M. M. U., Ahmed, M. N., Saha, G. C., & Roy, S. K., The fatty acid composition and properties of oil extracted from fresh rhizomes of turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn.) cultivars of Bangladesh. Bangladesh J Sci Ind Res, 2011, 46(1), 127-32.

Raatz, S.K., Conrad, Z., Jahns, L., Belury, M.A. and Picklo, M.J., Modeled replacement of traditional soybean and canola oil with high-oleic varieties increases monounsaturated fatty acid and reduces both saturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid intake in the US adult population. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 2018, 108(3), pp.594-602.

Tinello, F., & Lante, A., Valorisation of ginger and turmeric peels as source of natural antioxidants. Plant foods for human nutrition, 2019, 74, 443-445.

Llano, S. M., Gómez, A. M., & Duarte-Correa, Y. Effect of drying methods and processing conditions on the quality of Curcuma longa powder. Processes, 2022, 10(4), 702.

Pal, K., Chowdhury, S., Dutta, S. K., Chakraborty, S., Chakraborty, M., Pandit, G. K., ... & Mandal, S. Analysis of rhizome colour content, bioactive compound profiling and ex-situ conservation of turmeric genotypes (Curcuma longa L.) from the sub-Himalayan terai region of India. Industrial crops and products, 2020, 150, 112401.

Tanvir, E. M., Afroz, R., Karim, N., Mottalib, M. A., Hossain, M. I., Islam, M. A., ... & Khalil, M. I. Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Methanolic Extract of BAU K ul (Z iziphus mauritiana), an Improved Variety of Fruit from B angladesh. Journal of Food Biochemistry, 2015, 39(2), 139-147.

Frankel, E. N., Huang, S. W., Kanner, J., & German, J. B. Interfacial phenomena in the evaluation of antioxidants: bulk oils vs emulsions. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 1994, 42(5), 1054-1059.

Bora J, Tongbram T, Mahnot N et al, Tocopherol. In: Kour J, Nayik GA (eds) Nutraceuticals and health care. Academic Press, New York, 2022, pp 259–278

Saldeen K, Saldeen T, Importance of tocopherols beyond α-tocopherol: evidence from animal and human studies. Nutr Res, 2005, 25:877–889.

Abdel-Aal, E.S.M., Akhtar, H., Zaheer, K. and Ali, R., Dietary sources of lutein and zeaxanthin carotenoids and their role in eye health. Nutrients, 5(4), 2013, pp.1169-1185.

Nabi, F., Arain, M.A., Rajput, N., Alagawany, M., Soomro, J., Umer, M., Soomro, F., Wang, Z., Ye, R. and Liu, J., Health benefits of carotenoids and potential application in poultry industry: A review. Journal of animal physiology and animal nutrition, 2020, 104(6), pp.1809-1818.

Nogareda, C., Moreno, J.A., Angulo, E., Sandmann, G., Portero, M., Capell, T., Zhu, C. and Christou, P., Carotenoid‐enriched transgenic corn delivers bioavailable carotenoids to poultry and protects them against coccidiosis. Plant Biotechnology Journal, 14(1), 2016, pp.160-168