Paradox of Genetic Diversity in the Case of Prionic Diseases in Sheep Breeds from Romania

Gheorghe Hrinca

Abstract


The main target of this debate is the revaluation of the biodiversity concept and especially of its significance in the animal husbandry field. The paper analyzes the genetic diversity at the determinant locus of scrapie (PrP) in the sheep breeds from Romania: Palas Merino, Tsigai, Tsurcana, Botosani Karakul, Palas Meat Breed and Palas Milk Breed. The prionic genetic diversity (d) has been quantified by means of informational energy (e). This study highlights the impact of increasing the genetic diversity from the PrP locus level on the health status of ovine species and especially on human food safety. The informational statistics processing shows that the resistance / susceptibility to scrapie is in relation to the degree of prionic genetic diversity. The limitation of genetic diversity by selecting the individuals possessing the ARR allele in both homozygous status and in combination with alleles ARQ, ARH AHQ confers to sheep herds certain levels of resistance to contamination with scrapie disease. Instead, promoting to reproduction also individuals possessing the VRQ allele in all possible genotypic combinations (including ARR allele) increases genetic diversity but also has as effect increasing the susceptibility of sheep to prion disease onset. From the point of view of morbid phenomenon, the Botosani Karakul breed is clearly advantaged compared to all other indigenous sheep breeds from Romania. For methodological coherency in the interpretative context of this issue, the genetic diversity was analyzed in association with the heterozygosity degree of breeds and their Hardy-Weinberg genetic equilibrium at the PrP locus level. Finally, the paper refers to decisions that the improvers must take to achieve the genetic prophylaxis in the scrapie case taking into account the polymorphism degree of prion protein.

Keywords


genetic diversity, informational energy, scrapie, sheep

Full Text:

PDF

References


Álvarez, I., Gutiérrez, J.P., Royo L.J., Fernández, I., Goyache, F., Quantifying diversity losses due to selection for scrapie resistance in three endangered Spanish sheep breeds using microsatellite information. Prev. Vet. Med., 2009, 91(2-4), 172-178.

Bossers, A., Prion diseases: Susceptibility and transmissibility. In vivo and In vitro studies with sheep Scrapie. Thesis at the DLO-Inst. for Anim. Sci. and Health. Lelystad, The Netherlands, 1999.

Coşier, V., Creşterea rezistenţei la scrapie la populaţiile de ovine din România prin selecţia asistată la nivel molecular. Edit Risoprint, Cluj-Napoca, 2008.

Commission of the European Communities. Biodiversity Action Plan for Agriculture. Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament, III, Brussels, 2001.

Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, Draft guidelines on molecular genetics. Characterization of animal genetic resources. Thirteenth Regular Session. Rome, 2011.

Conference of United Nations on Environment and Development (UNCED) – The Convention on Biological Diversity. Earth Summit, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, June 2-14, 1992.

European Commission for Nature and Biodiversity, EU biodiversity strategy to 2020. Nature & Biodiversity, 2011.

European Federation of Animal Science, 49Th EAAP Annual Meeting: Warsaw, Poland: Book of Abstracts, 1988, 4.

European Commission, The programme for the monitoring of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) and for the eradication of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and of scrapie. Commission Decision 2012/761/EU, 2013.

Dasmann, R. F., A Different Kind of Country. MacMillan Company, New York, 1968.

Hrincă, Gh., Georgescu, S.E., Vicovan, G., Nechifor, I., Genetic structure at the prion protein locus (PrP) of Botosani Karakul sheep populations in relation to the accuracy and intensity of selection mechanisms. Sci. Pap., Univ. of Agr. Sci. and Vet. Med. Iaşi, Anim. Sci. Series, 2014, 62, 13-21.

Hrincă, ,Gh., Vicovan, G., - Comparative study concerning the gene polymorphism of prion protein (PrP) in the Botosani Karakul and Palas Meat Breed sheep. Proc. Rom. Acad., Series B, 2014, 16(3), 209–218.

Hrincă, Gh., Modern methodology for quantifying the biodiversity in ovine species based on genetic markers using the concepts of informational statistics. Proc. Rom. Acad., Series B, 2015, 17(3), 273–289.

Kevorkian, S.E. M., Zăuleţ, M., Manea, M., A., Georgescu, S.E., Costache M., Analysis of the ORF region of the prion protein gene in the Botosani Karakul sheep breed from Romania. Turk. J. Vet. Anim. Sci., 2011, 35(2), 105-109.

Lovejoy, Th.E., Conservation biology, Yale University Press, 1980.

Mesquita, P., Batista, M., Marques, M. R., Santos. I.C., Pimenta, J., Silva Pereira, M., Carolino, I., Santos Silva, F., Oliveira Sousa, M. C., Gama, L.T., Fontes, C.M., Horta, A.E.M., Prates, J.A.M., Pereira, R.M., Prion-like Doppel gene polymorphisms and scrapie susceptibility in portuguese sheep breeds. Anim. Genetics, 2009, 41, 311–314.

Sartore, St., Rasero, R., Colussi, S., Sacchi, P., Effect of selection for scrapie resistance on genetic diversity in a rare and locally adapted sheep breed: The case of Sambucana. Livestock Sci., 2013, 157(1):75-80.

Onicesco, O., Théorie de l’information. Enérgie informationnelle. C.R. Acad. Sci., Serie A, Paris, 1966, 263, 841-842.

Onicescu, O., Ştefănescu, V., Elemente de statistică informaţională cu aplicaţii. Edit. tehn., Bucureşti, 1979.

Otelea, M.R., Zaulet, M., Dudu, A., Otelea, F., Baratareanu, S., Danes, D., The scrapie genetic susceptibility of some sheep breeds in southeast Romanian area and genotype profiles of sheep scrapie infected. Romanian Biotechn. Lett., 2011, 16(4), 6419-6429.

Paraschivescu, M.Th., Bogdan, A.T., Paraschivescu, M., Tobă, G.F., Stan, S., Biodiversity in farm animals: sources, using, conservation. Sci. Pap. of Univ. of Agr. Sci. and Vet. Med. Bucharest, Series D, 2009, LII, Anim Sci., 89-95.

Priola, S.A, Chesebro, B., Caughey, B., Biomedicine. A view from the top-prion diseases from 10,000 feet. Science, 2003. 300 (5621), 917–919.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c)


Scientific Papers Animal Science and Biotechnologies publish open access articles under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Licence (read full legal code).


LUCRARI STIINTIFICE ZOOTEHNIE SI BIOTEHNOLOGII (SCIENTIFIC PAPERS ANIMAL SCIENCE AND BIOTECHNOLOGIES)

ISSN print 1841 - 9364
ISSN online 2344 - 4576
ISSN-L  1841 - 9364
(former ISSN 1221-5287, E-ISSN 1841-9364)

PUBLISHER: AGROPRINT Timisoara, Romania
PAPER ACCESS: Full text articles available for free
FREQUENCY: Semiannual
PUBLICATION LANGUAGE: English
_________________________________________________________________

Banat´s University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine "King Michael I of Romania" from Timisoara
Faculty of Animal Science and Biotechnologies
300645, Timişoara, Calea Aradului 119, Romania

E-mail: spasb [at] animalsci-tm.ro
Phone: +40-256-277160, Fax.: +40-256-277110